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Graphics For Climate Change
Fig. 10 of the paper . Recent warming correlates with increases in sulfur from fossil fuels. Red bars show sulfate in each layer of ice in Greenland, the blue line shows average global temperature and the black line shows sulfur emitted by burning fossil fuels. All layers since 1925 contain residual sulfate that increases yearly in proportion to the increase in anthropogenic sulfur emissions.
Figure 1 of the press release: Volcanic sulfate measured in the ice layers of Greenland has its highest concentrations during times when global warming was greatest (W) at the end of the last ice age and is lowest when re-glaciation occurred (C).
Figure 2 of the press release: Human emissions of sulfur began to decrease around 1980 through efforts to reduce acid rain. The rate of increase of the concentration of methane began to decrease by 1990. Methane and temperature became relatively constant soon after 2000. It took 20 years to increase the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere enough to reverse the increase in temperature. CO2 continues to increase due to emissions by man and a time lag to respond to temperature change.
Biographical Information for Peter L. Ward
During the summer of 2007, I discovered an enigma, a mystery: Moderate increases in the rate of volcanism caused the beginning of ice ages and major increases in the rate of volcanism caused the end of ice ages. How? The diagram on the left shows the last 50 million years. The green line is a proxy for temperature getting colder down. The red line is a proxy for volcanism increasing down. The blue arrow marks the beginning of the most recent ice age epoch around 34 million years ago when glaciers became widespread. The diagram on the right shows the last 25,000 years. The green line is a proxy for temperature getting colder down. The red lines are a proxy for volcanic activity, the amount of sulfate deposited per century in Greenland. Note how the times of greatest volcanism are the same as the times of greatest warming. By 9,000 years ago, the ocean had warmed out of the ice age to current temperastures.